OWASP(Open Web Application Security Project) Top Ten :
OWASP Top 10 focusses on the Layer 7 of the OSI model, that is the Application layer. The Application layer of the OSI model is responsible for all the network services provided to the users.
OWASP Top 10, instead of focusing on the entire security, and eliminating all the security risks, focuses on the the most critical security issues, independent of the technology and the platform used. It also then goes ahead and helps in closing the holes. This goes a long way in strengthening a company’s security, as most of the web attacks are among the one that is listed in the OWASP list.
The OWASP Top 10 list, taken from the OWASP website 2010 is as follows
A1 : Injection Type Attacks(Injection flaws, such as SQL, OS, and LDAP injection, occur when untrusted data is sent to an interpreter as part of a command or query. The attacker’s hostile data can trick the interpreter into executing unintended commands or accessing unauthorized data.)
A2 : Cross Site Scripting(XSS flaws occur whenever an application takes untrusted data and sends it to a web browser without proper validation and escaping. XSS allows attackers to execute scripts in the victim’s browser which can hijack user sessions, deface web sites, or redirect the user to malicious sites.)
A3 : Broken Authentication and Session Management(Application functions related to authentication and session management are often not implemented correctly, allowing attackers to compromise passwords, keys, session tokens, or exploit other implementation flaws to assume other users’ identities.)
A4 : Insecure Direct Object References(A direct object reference occurs when a developer exposes a reference to an internal implementation object, such as a file, directory, or database key. Without an access control check or other protection, attackers can manipulate these references to access unauthorized data.)
A5 : Cross Site Request Forgery(A CSRF attack forces a logged-on victim’s browser to senda forged HTTP request, including the victim’s session cookie and any other automatically included authentication information, to a vulnerable web application. This allows the attacker to force the victim’s browser to generate requests the vulnerable application thinks are legitimate requests from the victim.)
A6 : Security Misconfiguration(Good security requires having a secure configuration defined and deployed for the application, frameworks, application server, web server, database server, and platform. All these settings should be defined, implemented, and maintained as many are not shipped with secure defaults.)
A7 : Insecure Cryptographic Storage(Many web applications do not properly protect sensitive data, such as credit cards, SSNs, and authentication credentials, with appropriate encryption or hashing. Attackers may steal or modify such weakly protected data to conduct identity theft, credit card fraud, or other crimes.)
A8 : Failure to Restrict URL Access(Many web applications check URL access rights before rendering protected links and buttons. However, applications need to perform similar access control checks each time these pages are accessed, or attackers will be able to forge URLs to access these hidden pages anyway.)
A9 : Insufficient Transport Layer Protection(Applications frequently fail to authenticate, encrypt, and protect the confidentiality and integrity of sensitive network traffic. When they do, they sometimes support weak algorithms, use expired or invalid certificates, or do not use them correctly.)
A10: Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards(Web applications frequently redirect and forward users to other pages and websites, and use untrusted data to determine the destination pages. Without proper validation, attackers can redirect victims to phishing or malware sites, or use forwards to access unauthorized pages.)